What do these two have in
First some terminology:
Exotoxin: a toxin secreted by bacterium into the surrounding environment.
Endotoxin: a toxin held within bacterium, but is released when pathogen dies.
Cytotoxin: an exotoxin that disrupts cells of the host.
Enterotoxin: an exotoxin that disrupts the lining of the host's gastrointestinal tract.
• Salmonella will enter your digestive tract
penetrate the intestinal mucosa
• reproduce within mesenteric lymph nodes
• viable bacteria and LPS (endotoxin from lysed bacteria) released into bloodstream (septicemia)
• endotoxin hits cardiovascular system
• some strains produce enterotoxins somewhat similar to cholera toxin
• also present is a cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis
• enterotoxin and cytotoxin involved in diarrheal symptoms
Some History and Facts
1907: Don't forget Typhoid Mary. Typhoid fever is caused by
Salmonella typhi. For an interesting story, visit:
Mary Mallon (& Mrs. Brown): [Typhoid Mary]
1869 - 1938
Irish Immigrant - NYC/Long Island
1984: Inoculation of
salad bars with Salmonella
Excerpt from the above site
I had my first talk with Mary in the kitchen of this house. . . . I was as
diplomatic as possible, but I had to say I suspected her of making people sick
and that I wanted specimens of her urine, feces and blood. It did not take Mary
long to react to this suggestion. She seized a carving fork and advanced in my
direction. I passed rapidly down the long narrow hall, through the tall iron
gate, . . . and so to the sidewalk. I felt rather lucky to escape.
Dalles, Oregon. Executed by the
religious cult, Rajneesh.
Salad bars in 10 restaurants were contaminated; 750
individuals became ill. Intent: influence voter
Photo: Rajneesh Chandra Mohan - Portrait
1985: Contaminated milk from a single dairy led to
approximately 250,000 illnesses.
1994: Nationwide outbreak - Tanker trucks that had carried
raw liquid egg then carried ice cream premix without
sanitizing between the two shipments.
cases of salmonellosis.
Reservoirs for Salmonella
enteritidis: periovarian tissue of hens' eggs; bacteria
then infect the yolk membrane of the egg; also broiler chickens.
Salmonella typhimurium: dairy cows
Over 90% of reptile pets carry this
pathogen; leads to gastrointeritis,
which in children may lead