Salmonellosis

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http://www.drinkswap.com/images/da/depth_charge.jpg      http://www.myhomecooking.net/chocolate-chip-cookies/images/chocolate-chip-cookie-dough.jpg


What do these two have in common???



Raw Egg(s)
and possibly...
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[Salmonella] http://bricker.tcnj.edu/micro/le9/Salmonella.jpg

So what?
First some terminology:
Exotoxin: a toxin secreted by bacterium into the surrounding environment.
Endotoxin: a toxin held within bacterium, but is released when pathogen dies.
Cytotoxin: an exotoxin that disrupts cells of the host.
Enterotoxin: an exotoxin that disrupts the lining of the host's gastrointestinal tract.


Salmonella will enter your digestive tract
penetrate the intestinal mucosa
• reproduce within mesenteric lymph nodes
• viable bacteria and LPS (endotoxin from lysed bacteria) released into bloodstream (septicemia)
• endotoxin hits cardiovascular system
• some strains produce enterotoxins somewhat similar to cholera toxin
• also present is a cytotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis
• enterotoxin and cytotoxin involved in diarrheal symptoms

Some History and Facts
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http://i.esmas.com/image/0/000/004/114/salmonella_nt.jpg

1907: Don't forget Typhoid Mary.  Typhoid fever is caused by
          Salmonella typhi.  For an interesting story, visit:

Typhoid Mary


Mary Mallon (& Mrs. Brown):  [Typhoid Mary]
1869 - 1938
Irish Immigrant - NYC/Long Island  
www.wpclipart.com/famous/infamous/Mary_Mallon__typhoid_Mary.png

Excerpt from the above site:
I had my first talk with Mary in the kitchen of this house. . . . I was as diplomatic as possible, but I had to say I suspected her of making people sick and that I wanted specimens of her urine, feces and blood. It did not take Mary long to react to this suggestion. She seized a carving fork and advanced in my direction. I passed rapidly down the long narrow hall, through the tall iron gate, . . . and so to the sidewalk. I felt rather lucky to escape.

1984: Inoculation of salad bars with Salmonella typhimurium in
          Dalles, Oregon.  Executed by the religious cult, Rajneesh.
          Salad bars in 10 restaurants were contaminated; 750
          individuals became ill.  Intent: influence voter turnout


Photo: Rajneesh Chandra Mohan - Portrait
www.sikhtimes.com/bios_092601a.html

1985: Contaminated milk from a single dairy led to
           approximately 250,000 illnesses.

http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/cows_feeding.jpg


1994: Nationwide outbreak - Tanker trucks that had carried
           raw liquid egg then carried ice cream premix without
           sanitizing between the two shipments.  Result: 224,000
           cases of salmonellosis.

http://www.dasc.vt.edu/youth/images/milktruck.JPG

Reservoirs for Salmonella
    Salmonella enteritidis: periovarian tissue of hens' eggs; bacteria
     then infect the yolk membrane of the egg; also broiler chickens.
    Salmonella typhimurium: dairy cows
   
Salmonella enterica: Over 90% of reptile pets carry this
     pathogen; leads to gastrointeritis, which in children may lead
     to meningitis.